Ceramics: Properties, Application and Classification of Ceramics

What is Ceramic? A ceramic is an inorganic, non-metallic solid mainly based on oxide, nitride, boride, or carbide that are shaped and then fixed at high temperatures. Ceramic is hard, brittle, heat-resistant, and corrosion-resistant. Ceramic is used almost everywhere like in kitchens, cookware, pottery, bricks, pipes, etc.  Many ceramics contain a mixture of ionic and covalent bonds between them. That's why they exist in crystalline, semi-crystalline, and vitreous form. Properties of Ceramics 1. Ceramics have high hardness. 2. They are brittle and have poor toughness. 3. They have a high melting point. 4. They have poor electrical and thermal conductivity. 5. They have low ductility. 6. They have a high modulus of elasticity. 7. They have high compression strength. 8. They show optical transparency to a variety of wavelengths. Application of Ceramics 1. Silicon carbide and tungsten carbide are technical ceramics that are used in body armor, wear plates for mining, and machine

Manufacture of Glass: Step by Step Process

The Fours Steps for Manufacturing of Glass 1. Collection of raw materials The raw materials such as silica (in the form of sand or quartz SiO2), soda ash (Na3CO3), limestone (CaCO3), and cullet (broken glass) are collected separately and mixed in a proper proportion. The fusion of cullet (broken glass) is added to bring down the melting point of the charge. 2. Preparation of Batch The raw materials, cullet, and decolourisers are finely powdered in grinding machines. These materials are accurately weighed in correct proportions before they are mixed. The mixing of these materials is carried out in mixing machines until a uniform mixture is obtained. Such a uniform mixture is known as batch or frit . It is taken for further process of melting in a furnace. 3. Melting or heating of the charge The glass batch is melted either in a pot furnace or in a tank furnace. It is made of fireclay or platinum. The heating is continued until the evolution of carbon dioxide, oxygen, sulfur diox

Green Solvents: Definition, Examples and Types of Green Solvents

What are Green Solvents? Green solvents, also known as environmentally friendly bio solvents which are derived from the processing of crops. There are many types of green solvents like ionic liquids, supercritical fluids, water, and supercritical water. These green solvents are way much eco-friendly, less toxic, less hazardous than traditional volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For example, Ethyl lactate Ethyl lactate is a green solvent derived from processing corn. Ethyl lactate is the ester of lactic acid which is used as solvents in the paints and coating industry. Types of Green Solvents 1. Supercritical Fluids A compound that exists above its critical pressure (Pc) and above its critical temperature (Tc) is known as supercritical fluid or SCF. Their chemical and physical properties are between those of a gas and a liquid. Phase diagram showing the supercritical fluid region Supercritical liquids are the perfect replacement for organic solvents for industrial and lab processes d

Microwave Assisted Reactions in Green Chemistry

Definition of microwave A microwave (MW) is a form of electromagnetic energy. It is defined as a measurement of the frequency of 300 to 3000000 MHz which comes from the lower end of the electromagnetic spectrum, corresponding to wavelengths of 1 cm to 1 m.  The main difference between microwave energy and other forms of radiation such as X-rays and Y-rays is that microwave energy is non-ionizing and thus does not change the molecular structure of the compounds, it only provides thermal activation. Mechanism of microwave heating Microwave heating works upon the interaction of molecules in a reaction mixture with electromagnetic waves generated by a "microwave dielectric effect" . The heating effect of microwaves can be understood by two different mechanisms: 1. Dielectric polarization (Dipole interaction) The heating effect generated in microwave-assisted organic transformations is mainly due to dielectric polarization . This mechanism states that when a molecule is irrad

8 Types of Glass and their Properties and Applications

Glasses are ceramic materials that are rigid like solids but which are not crystalline. Glass is also known as a supercooled liquid of infinitely high viscosity. The glass comes in the category of amorphous solid which is brittle and transparent. They are obtained by fusing a mixture of several metallic silicates or borates of sodium, potassium, calcium, and lead. Composition of Glass Glass is not a single compound. So, it does not have a fixed chemical formula but its general chemical formula is given below: xR2O.yMO.6SiO2 R = Alkali metal (Na, K, etc) M = Bivalent metal (Ca, Pb, etc) x and y = Number of molecules Properties of Glass 1. Glass is an amorphous solid that is its constituent particles are not arranged in any regular fashion. 2. Glass is brittle that is it can easily crack by applying little external force. 3. Glass may be transparent or translucent depending upon the compounds used in its manufacturing. 4. Glass melt over a range of temperature. 5. Glass is isotropic.

Inherent Safer Design and its 4 Principles - Green Chemistry

The concept of Inherent Safer Design (ISD) states that hazardous should be avoided instead of controlling them. This can be done by reducing the amount of hazardous material and the number of hazardous operations in the industrial plant. The statement "what you don't have cannot harm you" was given by a British chemical engineer Trevor Kletz in an article published in 1978 after the Flixborough disaster. This statement means that we should reduce the hazard instead of controlling them. For example,  If benzene is replaced by a green solvent then how can benzene affect us in the future (What you don't have cannot harm you). There are four principles of inherently safer design: 1. Minimisation This method of Inherent Safer Design states that we should use small quantities of hazardous materials or reduce the size of equipment operating under hazardous conditions like high temperature and pressure. For example, Nitroglycerine can be manufactured in a continuous pip

The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry

Green chemistry is the branch of chemistry which aims at the designing of chemical products and processes to reduce or eliminate the generation of hazardous substances. Green chemistry promotes the green process, a healthy environment, and sustainable development. So, Green chemistry works on some set of principles called "12 Principles of green chemistry" . These principles were formulated by Paul T. Anastas. 12 principles of green chemistry are given below: 1. Prevention of waste or by-products This principle of green chemistry states that we should minimise or eliminate waste by-products rather than cleaning the waste after it has been created. For example, the production of plastic by-products should be minimised instead of cleaning it after its production. We should make a proper plan to minimise the waste at every step of the chemical process. 2. Maximum incorporation of the reactants (starting materials and reagents) into the final product This principle of green

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2020 Winners: Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna

The Nobel Prize 2020 for Chemistry was shared by two women scientists Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier. They bagged Nobel Prize 2020 for Chemistry "for the development of a method for genome editing". The discovery of the sharpest tools CRISPR/Cas9 will make it easier to edit genes and may be used to cure inherited diseases. Why Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier awarded Nobel Prize 2020 for Chemistry? Emmanuelle Charpentier Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier awarded Nobel Prize 2020 for Chemistry for discovering genome editing sharpest tools "CRISPR/Cas9". Like Microsoft (MS) Word is used for writing and editing, similarly, CRISPR/Cas9  is used for adding, editing, and deleting the genomic code in living organisms.  The full form of CRISPR is "Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats", they are parts of DNA that bacteria slit off from the viruses that once attacked them, similarly like MS word used to store diff

How to tamper data of a website using Burp Suite

Burp Suite is a tool developed by Portswigger, which is used for penetration testing of web applications. We can perform lots of tasks using burp suite like modification, brute force attack, crawling, etc. It is generally used by security researchers to check possible vulnerability in a website. In this post we will show you how to tamper data of a website using Burp Suite. Tamper data of a website using Burp Suite in just 15 steps! Step 1: Open Burp Suite Community edition in your computer. Step 2: A dashboard will open like this, Go to "Proxy" option present at third number. Step 3: After opening Proxy Tab, click on "interception" button to turn it on. Step 4: Now go to your browser (here Mozilla Firefox) then go to proxy setting to change “Manual Proxy configuration” from “User system Proxy setting” .  It’s very important to set proxy at same IP and Port as that of Burp Suite, only then Burp Suite will be able to intercept packets. Moreover, Burp Suite will