Posts

Information Warfare and it's Types

Image
What is Information warfare? Information warfare is a type of warfare that includes the use of information and communication technology to gain tactical and strategic advantage against the opponent. Information warfare technique is widely used by government or military to spread propaganda and disinformation against the opponent government or a country.  Information warfare reduces the operational cost of traditional weapons instead it utilizes the internet and network to spread disinformation into cyberspace. Types of information warfare 1. Personal Information warfare Personal information warfare is the art of obtaining the personal information of an individual without his knowledge or consent. This is done to steal personal information like name, age, work, and location and use it for unfair means methods to steal personal information are password checking, DNS attacks, malware attacks, DoS attack, etc. 2. Corporate information warfare Corporate information warfare is the act of

Cybersecurity and it's Types

Image
What is Cybersecurity? Cybersecurity is the practice of protecting computers, software, data, etc from hackers and malicious attackers. Cybersecurity is also known as Information security as all the information stored in computer and servers need to be secured.  Cybersecurity is essential because nowadays every organization like government, corporate, financial, medical, etc uses the Internet and computers. So, the chances of a security breach are high in them. Cybersecurity can be divided into the following categories: 1. Network security Network security is the process of protecting computers, mobile, etc connected to a network. For example, Network security is essential because nowadays every computer device or IoT device is connected to the internet or other Public/Private network. Hackers can use this network to penetrate these devices and compromise their security. 2. Application Security Application security is the process of protecting the computer applications like web bro

Transportation Injuries in Forensic Medicine

Image
Introduction to Transportation Injuries These injuries are blunt force injuries that happen due to traveling on the ground, air, and water. The most common transportation injuries are motor and pedestrian injuries. Following are the various transportation injuries: Types of Transportation Injuries A) Vehicular Injuries These injuries are blunt force injuries that happen due to traveling on the ground either walking and being hit by some car or simply driving a car and crashing it. Those injured by accidents can be divided into three broad groups that are pedestrians, cyclists (Pedal or motor), and the drivers/passenger of vehicles. 1. Pedestrian Injuries (i) Primary Impact Injuries These injuries are produced when any part of the victim first strikes the vehicle. Generally, when an adult is hit by the front of a car, the front bumper will strike the victim at about knee level. This will help to establish the position of the victim and in crime scene reconstruction. The position of the

Classification of Firearms

Image
1. Classification based on size and handling mechanism 1. Handguns Firearms that are short and compact and can be held in one hand. They have generally short barrels. They are further classified into two types: (a) Revolver A revolver is a short barrel firearm having a cylinder at the rear of the barrel. This cylinder has various chambers in which the cartridge is placed. When the trigger is pulled, the hammer facing one of the chambers of the cylinder strikes the primer of the cartridge, and hence the bullet fires. (b) Pistol A pistol is also a short barrel firearm having a magazine loaded with bullets. The magazine has a spring beneath it which push the new cartridge into the firing chamber after the previous bullet is fired and the process keeps going on till the magazine got empty. Pistols are available in all calibers ranging from 5 to 12 mm. 2. Shoulder Gun Firearms that are long barrels and relatively bigger and fired only with the assistance of a shoulder are known as should

Methyl Orange: Introduction, Preparation, Applications

Image
What is Methyl Orange? Methyl orange is a weak acid that breaks down into orange neutral molecules when it comes into contact with water. Methyl orange shows red color in the acidic medium and yellow color in the basic medium. That's why it is used as a pH indicator in titration due to its clear and distinct color variance properties at different pH. Preparation of methyl orange Methyl orange is prepared from sulphanilic acid N, N-dimethylaniline through a diazonium coupling reaction. The first product from the coupling is the bright red form of methyl orange, called helianthin. In the base, helianthin is converted to the orange sodium salt, called methyl orange. Mechanism of preparation of methyl orange The mechanism of this reaction is given below: Step 1:  Sulphanilic acid reacts with sodium carbonate extract and gets converted into sodium salt of p-amino benzene sulphonate Step 2: It undergoes a diazotization reaction in presence of nitrous acid to form diazonium chloride

Phases of Digital Forensics

Image
Following are the phases of digital forensics: (i) Collection of information/ Pre search consideration Before reaching the scene of the crime, the expert should have preliminary knowledge about the nature of the cybercrime. This information can be obtained from the first responding officer. Pre-search consideration helps the investigator to physically and mentally prepare for the crime and helps him to carry relevant tools to the scene of the crime.  Following are the three steps involved in pre-search consideration: (a) Securing and Evaluating In this stage, the expert asks questions regarding crime and pays special attention to the safety issues. He also checks the consent issues. (b) Conducting preliminary interviews Take the preliminary interview of the owner or user of the computer system found at the scene of the crime. If the system is password protected then an expert may ask the access to the system. Also, try to know the purpose of the use of a computer by the user. (c) Docum

Digital Forensics and it's Branches

Image
What is Digital Forensics? The branch of forensic science that deals with the identification, collection, preservation, analysis, and reporting of any valuable digital evidence found at the scene of the crime is called digital forensics. It is also based on Locard's principle of exchange which states that "when a person comes into contact with an object, a mutual transfer of pieces of evidence takes place".  Here, digital forensic evidence like temporary files, commands, history, deleted data, etc can be found in the computer. Digital forensics helps the court of law in the conviction of criminals by studying digital evidence and maintaining a proper chain of custody. Branches of Digital Forensics Following are the branches of digital forensics: (i) Mobile forensics Mobile forensics is the branch of digital forensics that deals with the identification, collection, preservation, analysis, and reporting of any mobile device like a smartphone, tablet, etc found at the s

Death: Definition, Types, Causes and Signs

Image
What is Death? Death is the irreversible cessation of all biological functions that helps to sustain an organism. The remains of a dead organism normally begin to decompose shortly after death. Death is an inevitable, a universal process that eventually occurs in all living organisms. Types of Death There are mainly two types of death 1. Somatic Death It is also known as clinical death . It refers to the complete and irreversible cessation of the function of the brain followed by the cessation of the function of the heart and lungs. 2. Molecular death It is also known as cell death. It refers to the complete and irreversible cessation of individual tissues of the cells. It takes place after the somatic death and in this type of death individual cells and other biomolecules in the system die.  This happens due to the loss of blood flow and oxygen for the survival of cells and tissues. Causes of death 1. Asphyxia The death of an individual due to interference with the intake of oxygen is

Mechanical Injuries: Definition, Types and Factors Affecting

Image
What are Mechanical Injuries? Injuries that are produced by any kind of mechanical force like blunt, sharp objects, firearms, etc are known as mechanical injuries. Injuries are defined as any harm to any person in body, mind, reputation, or property. Types of mechanical Injuries (A) Blunt force mechanical injuries Injuries caused by blunt force impact by objects like bat pipe, rod, etc are known as blunt force mechanical injuries. The injuries by blunt force produce abrasion, bruise, laceration, etc. 1. Abrasion Injury caused by the removal of the superficial epithelial layer of skin (generally epidermis) by friction against the rough surface is called abrasion. Following are the types of abrasion: (a) Scratch/ Linear Abrasion Linear abrasion is caused by a sharp or pointed object like a fingernail, thorn, or pin on the surface of the skin. It has some length but no significant width. (b) Graze abrasion (sliding/scrape/grinding abrasion) Graze abrasion is caused by horizontal or ta

Classification of Explosives

Image
What are explosives? An explosive is a chemical substance that tends to release a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly. It is accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure. The explosives can be classified based on their chemical composition, velocity of detonation, sensitivity towards heat and light, and physical forms. But broadly explosives are of three types: low explosives , high explosives , and miscellaneous . The latter is subdivided into IEDs and nuclear explosives. Classification of explosives 1. Low explosives Low explosives are chemical compounds in which the rate of decomposition through the material is less than the speed of sound. The deflagration rate in low explosives is less than 4000 m/sec. The proportion of burning of explosives depends on combustion gas, pressure, grain size, form, and composition. Examples of low explosives are gunpowder, flash powder, pyrotechnics, smokeless powder, etc. (a) Gu