Showing posts from July, 2021

Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA): An Acrylic Polymer

What are Acrylic Polymers ? Acrylic Polymers, commonly known as acrylics are strong, stiff, and transparent plastic materials. They are prepared by free-radical polymerization of monomers that belong to ester acrylate (R=H) and methacrylate (R=CH₃) families. Acrylic Polymers are found in the market under the trade names perspex, Acrylite, Europlex, Optix, Duraplex, and Plexiglass. They are used for lighting, electronics screen, automotive components, and outdoor glazing in architecture and construction. Most common Acrylic Polymer: Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is a transparent thermoplastic that is used in sheet form as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass. It is a synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate which is prepared by free radical polymerization of this monomer. Preparation of Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is a vinyl polymer that is prepared by free radical polymerization of

Biodegradable Polymers: Definition, Examples, Properties and Applications

What are Biodegradable Polymers? Polymers such as polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, etc), proteins, and nucleic acid that can disintegrate themselves in biological systems during a certain period by enzymatic hydrolysis and by oxidation, are called biodegradable polymers. These polymers do not have a disposable problem and they do not cause pollution like their other counterpart polymers. Moreover, their availability is good and they are non-toxic. The most important class of biodegradable polymers are aliphatic polyesters are polyamides. Examples of Biodegradable Polymers Some common examples of biodegradable polymers are given below: (i) Poly-b-hydroxybutyrate-co-b-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) It is a thermoplastic copolymer of 3-hydroxybutyric acid and 3-hydroxypentanoic acid in which two monomer units are connected by ester linkages. It is used in specialty packaging, orthopedic devices, and controlled drug release.  For example, when a drug is enclosed in a capsule of PHBV, it is

Polytetrafluoroethyene (Teflon): A Fluoropolymer

What is a Fluoropolymer?  A fluoropolymer is a fluorocarbon-based polymer with multiple carbon-fluorine bonds which is produced from alkenes in which one or more hydrogen atoms is replaced by fluorine. Fluoro polymers have high resistance to solvents, acids, and bases that's why it is used in making kitchenware and industry wares. Following is the common example of Fluoropolymers: Polytetrafluoroethyene (PTFE) or Teflon Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Teflon is a synthetic fluoropolymer that is made by polymerizing tetrafluoroethylene. It is chiefly used to coat non-stick cooking utensils and to make seals and bearings. Preparation of Teflon Teflon is prepared by heating tetrafluoroethylene in the presence of peroxides or ammonium persulphate catalyst at high pressures. Properties of Teflon 1. Teflon is flexible and inert to solvents and boiling acids even to aqua regia and is stable up to 598K temperature. 2. It has a low coefficient of friction and low dielectric constan

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): Definition, Preparation, Properties and Applications

What is Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)?  Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is the third most widely used thermoplastic polymer after polyethylene and polypropylene. It is prepared by radical polymerization of vinyl chloride to produce material composed of an average of 10,000 to 24,000 monomer units. It is atactic and therefore amorphous, but it has a relatively high glass transition temperature (Tg) because of the large size of its molecules and its polar carbon-chlorine bond. Preparation of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) The monomer vinyl chloride is treated with peracid under pressure to obtain Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Properties of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) 1. It is a linear polymer and thermoplastic in nature. 2. It is a white brittle solid, hard, rigid material which tends to stick to the metallic surface. 3. It is insoluble in all hydrocarbon solvents. 4. It has a melting point of 212℃ and glass transition temperature (Tg) is 80℃ . Applications of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) 1. When PVC is plastici

Polymer Additives and It's Types

What are polymer additives? The chemicals which are added to base polymers to improve their processability, life span, color, and other physical and chemical properties, are called polymer additives. They provide excellent properties like heat resistance, U.V resistance, anti-oxidant, high tensile strength, etc to the polymers. These polymers are widely used in flame retardants, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, paints, and coating and for inkjet printing inks. Types of polymer additives Following are the common types of polymers additives: 1. Plasticizers Plasticizers are a type of polymer additive that is used in base polymer to make it more flexible. Plasticizers decrease the attraction between the polymer chains, thereby allowing them to slide past one another. For example , Di-2-Ethylhexyl phthalate is the most common plasticizer which is added to PVC to make it more flexible. Thus, PVC can be used to make products like vinyl raincoats, shower curtains, and garden hoses. A plasticiz