Showing posts from August, 2022

Factors Affecting Poisoning - Toxicology

Following are the Factors affecting the poisoning: (A) Factors pertaining to the substance 1. Dose The more the quantity of poison, the more severe will be the toxic effects. But it is not necessary all the time, sometimes larger doses result in vomiting, thus reducing its intensity. But in the majority of cases, more dose will produce more toxicity. 2. State Gases and vapor act more rapidly than liquid poisons. Whereas, liquid poisons act more rapidly than solid poisons. And in solid poisons, fine powdered solid poisons act more rapidly than coarse ones. Thus, the state/form of poison directly affects the effect of poison. 3. Chemical combination The action of poison depends upon the chemical combination that will alter the solubility of the poison in the body. For eg, AgNO₃ and HCl are both strong poisons, but when combined, form or, an insoluble salt of AgCl which is harmless. 4. Mechanical Combination The action of poison is considerably altered when combined mechanically with in

Mode of Action of Poisons

Any substance (solid, liquid, or gas) that if introduced to a living body, produce ill health or death is called poison.  So, the following are the mode of action of poisons: 1. Local Action In local action, the poison when come in contact with a particular body part then produce harmful effects at the site of contact. For eg, strong acids and alkalis cause irritation and inflammation at the site of contact. 2. Remote Action In remote action, the poison develops toxicity at a particular designated site of action/target irrespective of the route of administration. For eg, Mercury vapors if inhaled produce neurotoxicity. 3. Remote-Local action (Systemic Action) In systemic action, the poison produces toxic effects at the site of administration as well as at the particular target organ to develop their toxic effects. For eg, a Snakebite affects the bitten tissue as well as the central nervous system. 4. General Action In general action, the absorbed poison evokes a response from a wide va

Routes of Administration of Poisons

Following are the various routes of administration of poisons: (A) Enteral Routes 1. Oral  It is the most commonly used method in which the poison is taken from the mouth. Poison taken from this route directly affects GIT, the upper respiratory tract, stomach, and other organs. 2. Sublingual In this method of administration, the poison is placed beneath the tongue and spread over the buccal mucosa (the lining of cheeks and the back of lips). It shows rapid absorption and directly passes into the systemic circulation. 3. Rectal In this method of administration, the poisons are inserted into the anus where they are absorbed into the bloodstream directly through the mucous membranes. (B) Parenteral Routes  Routes other than enteral are called parenteral. 1. Intravenous In this method of administration, the poison is injected into the body through veins , providing a direct route for the poison to get into the blood and thus circulate throughout the body very quickly and showing the sy