Showing posts from 2020

8 Types of Glass and their Properties and Applications

Glasses are ceramic materials that are rigid like solids but which are not crystalline. Glass is also known as a supercooled liquid of infinitely high viscosity. The glass comes in the category of amorphous solid which is brittle and transparent. They are obtained by fusing a mixture of several metallic silicates or borates of sodium, potassium, calcium, and lead. Composition of Glass Glass is not a single compound. So, it does not have a fixed chemical formula but its general chemical formula is given below: xR2O.yMO.6SiO2 R = Alkali metal (Na, K, etc) M = Bivalent metal (Ca, Pb, etc) x and y = Number of molecules Properties of Glass 1. Glass is an amorphous solid that is its constituent particles are not arranged in any regular fashion. 2. Glass is brittle that is it can easily crack by applying little external force. 3. Glass may be transparent or translucent depending upon the compounds used in its manufacturing. 4. Glass melt over a range of temperature. 5. Glass is isotropic.

Inherent Safer Design and its 4 Principles - Green Chemistry

The concept of Inherent Safer Design (ISD) states that hazardous should be avoided instead of controlling them. This can be done by reducing the amount of hazardous material and the number of hazardous operations in the industrial plant. The statement "what you don't have cannot harm you" was given by a British chemical engineer Trevor Kletz in an article published in 1978 after the Flixborough disaster. This statement means that we should reduce the hazard instead of controlling them. For example,  If benzene is replaced by a green solvent then how can benzene affect us in the future (What you don't have cannot harm you). There are four principles of inherently safer design: 1. Minimisation This method of Inherent Safer Design states that we should use small quantities of hazardous materials or reduce the size of equipment operating under hazardous conditions like high temperature and pressure. For example, Nitroglycerine can be manufactured in a continuous pip

The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry

Green chemistry is the branch of chemistry which aims at the designing of chemical products and processes to reduce or eliminate the generation of hazardous substances. Green chemistry promotes the green process, a healthy environment, and sustainable development. So, Green chemistry works on some set of principles called "12 Principles of green chemistry" . These principles were formulated by Paul T. Anastas. 12 principles of green chemistry are given below: 1. Prevention of waste or by-products This principle of green chemistry states that we should minimise or eliminate waste by-products rather than cleaning the waste after it has been created. For example, the production of plastic by-products should be minimised instead of cleaning it after its production. We should make a proper plan to minimise the waste at every step of the chemical process. 2. Maximum incorporation of the reactants (starting materials and reagents) into the final product This principle of green

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2020 Winners: Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna

The Nobel Prize 2020 for Chemistry was shared by two women scientists Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier. They bagged Nobel Prize 2020 for Chemistry "for the development of a method for genome editing". The discovery of the sharpest tools CRISPR/Cas9 will make it easier to edit genes and may be used to cure inherited diseases. Why Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier awarded Nobel Prize 2020 for Chemistry? Emmanuelle Charpentier Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier awarded Nobel Prize 2020 for Chemistry for discovering genome editing sharpest tools "CRISPR/Cas9". Like Microsoft (MS) Word is used for writing and editing, similarly, CRISPR/Cas9  is used for adding, editing, and deleting the genomic code in living organisms.  The full form of CRISPR is "Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats", they are parts of DNA that bacteria slit off from the viruses that once attacked them, similarly like MS word used to store diff

How to tamper data of a website using Burp Suite

Burp Suite is a tool developed by Portswigger, which is used for penetration testing of web applications. We can perform lots of tasks using burp suite like modification, brute force attack, crawling, etc. It is generally used by security researchers to check possible vulnerability in a website. In this post we will show you how to tamper data of a website using Burp Suite. Tamper data of a website using Burp Suite in just 15 steps! Step 1: Open Burp Suite Community edition in your computer. Step 2: A dashboard will open like this, Go to "Proxy" option present at third number. Step 3: After opening Proxy Tab, click on "interception" button to turn it on. Step 4: Now go to your browser (here Mozilla Firefox) then go to proxy setting to change “Manual Proxy configuration” from “User system Proxy setting” .  It’s very important to set proxy at same IP and Port as that of Burp Suite, only then Burp Suite will be able to intercept packets. Moreover, Burp Suite will

5 Incredible inventions that were discovered by accident

Some scientific discoveries came after long research and experimenting but many of them came accidentally. Accidental scientific discoveries proved to be a game-changer in today's life. So here are 5 incredible inventions that were discovered by accident. 1. Microwave oven The microwave oven was invented by Percy Spencer entirely by accident. He was working on "magnetron" , one of the components of radar equipment. He was amazed to see that candy in his pocket had melted.  Out of curiosity, he tried placing other objects near magnetron like popcorn, eggs, etc (He was standing at a safe distance, so as not to start cooking himself). Popcorn started popping out and eggshells started exploding, and for the first time, he came to know that eggs will explode in their shells if cooked in a microwave. Spencer realized the potential of his invention and designed more efficient and reliable food-cooking microwave ovens. The early models were not received much popularity due to t

Scattering of Light- Rayleigh Law of Scattering, Types and Examples

Scattering of Light The phenomenon of absorbing light by particles and then re-emitting in all directions is known as the scattering of light. When a light is emitted from a source then it is absorbed by all the particles which is coming in its path and then scattered in all direction. This is nothing but scattering of light. We will discuss this phenomenon with respect to Rayleigh law of scattering. Types of Scattering of Light 1. Elastic or Rayleigh Scattering This is a type of scattering in which the size of the particles say 'a' is very less than the wavelength of light i.e a<< λ . So, there will be no change in the frequency and wavelength of scattered light. 2. Inelastic Scattering This is a type of scattering in which the size of the particles say 'a' is larger than the wavelength of the light i.e a>> λ . So, there will be a change in the frequency and wavelength of scattered light. Rayleigh's law of Scattering Rayleigh's law of Scatter

What is Weather Radar and How Does it Works?

Radar is developed in World War II to detect enemy aircraft. Over a while, they noticed that they were catching signals from raindrops, hailstones, and snowflakes. After the end of the war, these radars were used for weather forecasting. From 1948 weather radar was installed on aircraft to help the pilots detect bad weather. Weather Radar and It's Working. A weather radar is nothing but an antenna that rotates and scans the sky. It transmits a directional, narrow beam of microwaves having a wavelength in the range of 1-10 centimeters. These wavelengths are about 10 times the size of the raindrops, hailstones, and snowflakes. So, these particles scatter the microwaves back and a return signal is picked by the respective radar. What does a weather radar measure? From the whole process, mainly five things are measured: 1. The time taken for the microwave pulse to travel to and from the scattering object gives the distance. 2. The Doppler shift of the return microwave pulse giv

How to Prevent Australian Bushfires from Happening Again?

Australian bushfires are caused by increasing atmospheric temperature, hotness, and dryness which is caused by climate change. Australian bushfires have killed almost 800 people since 1851 and billions of animals. So, the the real question arise that "How we can prevent Australian bushfires from happening again and again or it will kill same number of people and animals every year". So, in this post, I talked about workable steps to prevent  Australian bushfires from happening again. 1) National methods to prevent Australian Bushfires in the future 1. Moving away from fossil fuels According to the International Energy Agency , Australia is 4th largest exporter of coal and natural gas. Coal is responsible for 72% Green House Gas (GHG) emission in Australia which leads to a rise in global temperature in the summer season. This makes the environment drier and hotter which is the main reason for forest fires. Recently, the Australian government approved Adani’s c

Soil Pollution and its Sources and Preventions

Soil is the topmost part of the earth's crust and it's made due to decomposition and disintegration of surface rocks. It might have been formed in one place but it traveled to another due to weather factors like wind, storms, floods, etc. Soil is essential for the survival of the human race. Soil provides nutrients and minerals to plants which provide us fruits and vegetables. Soil is known as the heart of the biosphere. But due to anthropogenic activities, soil pollution is occurring in many countries. Soil pollution directly affects the plants and thus affects humans also. Soil pollution have many sources from industries to farms but the real question is how exactly soil pollution affects human life? So let's discuss... What is Soil Pollution? The addition of contaminants like chemicals, pesticides, domestic waste, etc into the soil, is called soil pollution. Today, due to an increase in population, the soil is becoming dirty and infertile. Soil gets p

Water Pollution and it's Types, Causes, Effects and Prevention

Water is a basic need for humans, it is used in household works, industry, and agriculture. We need fresh and clean water for our daily activities like drinking, washing, etc. But unfortunately, natural water from rain, rivers, and ground get contaminated causing health hazards. Water pollution has many types; it may be seawater pollution, groundwater pollution, etc. So, here is complete information about water pollution; it's types, causes, effects, sources and preventive measures. Water gets polluted in the following ways: 1. Natural Factors Yes, water can get polluted by natural factors like washing away of the decomposed vegetables, animal waste, and mixing of soil. 2. Human Factors Water can get polluted by many anthropogenic activities like the discharge of industrial waste, domestic waste, use of fertilizer in crops, etc. These factors are way much harmful than natural factors. Definition of Water Pollution The addition of external impurities in water wh