Showing posts from November, 2022

Death: Definition, Types, Causes and Signs

What is Death? Death is the irreversible cessation of all biological functions that helps to sustain an organism. The remains of a dead organism normally begin to decompose shortly after death. Death is an inevitable, a universal process that eventually occurs in all living organisms. Types of Death There are mainly two types of death 1. Somatic Death It is also known as clinical death . It refers to the complete and irreversible cessation of the function of the brain followed by the cessation of the function of the heart and lungs. 2. Molecular death It is also known as cell death. It refers to the complete and irreversible cessation of individual tissues of the cells. It takes place after the somatic death and in this type of death individual cells and other biomolecules in the system die.  This happens due to the loss of blood flow and oxygen for the survival of cells and tissues. Causes of death 1. Asphyxia The death of an individual due to interference with the intake of oxygen is

Mechanical Injuries: Definition, Types and Factors Affecting

What are Mechanical Injuries? Injuries that are produced by any kind of mechanical force like blunt, sharp objects, firearms, etc are known as mechanical injuries. Injuries are defined as any harm to any person in body, mind, reputation, or property. Types of mechanical Injuries (A) Blunt force mechanical injuries Injuries caused by blunt force impact by objects like bat pipe, rod, etc are known as blunt force mechanical injuries. The injuries by blunt force produce abrasion, bruise, laceration, etc. 1. Abrasion Injury caused by the removal of the superficial epithelial layer of skin (generally epidermis) by friction against the rough surface is called abrasion. Following are the types of abrasion: (a) Scratch/ Linear Abrasion Linear abrasion is caused by a sharp or pointed object like a fingernail, thorn, or pin on the surface of the skin. It has some length but no significant width. (b) Graze abrasion (sliding/scrape/grinding abrasion) Graze abrasion is caused by horizontal or ta

Classification of Explosives

What are explosives? An explosive is a chemical substance that tends to release a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly. It is accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure. The explosives can be classified based on their chemical composition, velocity of detonation, sensitivity towards heat and light, and physical forms. But broadly explosives are of three types: low explosives , high explosives , and miscellaneous . The latter is subdivided into IEDs and nuclear explosives. Classification of explosives 1. Low explosives Low explosives are chemical compounds in which the rate of decomposition through the material is less than the speed of sound. The deflagration rate in low explosives is less than 4000 m/sec. The proportion of burning of explosives depends on combustion gas, pressure, grain size, form, and composition. Examples of low explosives are gunpowder, flash powder, pyrotechnics, smokeless powder, etc. (a) Gu

Classification of Controlled Substance

Based on origin Based on their origin, drugs of abuse can be classified into the following three categories: 1. Natural Drugs Drugs that are obtained from plants and require little or no processing at all are known as natural drugs. Eg: Cannabis, opium, coca paste, etc. 2. Semi-synthetic Drugs Drugs that are obtained from plants but undergo the same chemical process are known as semi-synthetic drugs. Eg: Heroin, Cocaine, etc . 3. Synthetic Drugs Drugs that are synthesized absolutely through a chemical process are known as synthetic drugs. Eg: Amhetamine, diazepam, etc. Based on their use Based on the purpose of their use, different drugs can be classified into the following categories: 1. Therapeutic Drugs Drugs that have a certain therapeutic effect in terms of healing and prevention of certain diseases are known as therapeutic drugs. They are further classified into four categories: (i) Analgesics and Antipyretics Drugs that are used to relieve or decrease pain without the loss of