Showing posts from December, 2022

Classification of Firearms

1. Classification based on size and handling mechanism 1. Handguns Firearms that are short and compact and can be held in one hand. They have generally short barrels. They are further classified into two types: (a) Revolver A revolver is a short barrel firearm having a cylinder at the rear of the barrel. This cylinder has various chambers in which the cartridge is placed. When the trigger is pulled, the hammer facing one of the chambers of the cylinder strikes the primer of the cartridge, and hence the bullet fires. (b) Pistol A pistol is also a short barrel firearm having a magazine loaded with bullets. The magazine has a spring beneath it which push the new cartridge into the firing chamber after the previous bullet is fired and the process keeps going on till the magazine got empty. Pistols are available in all calibers ranging from 5 to 12 mm. 2. Shoulder Gun Firearms that are long barrels and relatively bigger and fired only with the assistance of a shoulder are known as should

Methyl Orange: Introduction, Preparation, Applications

What is Methyl Orange? Methyl orange is a weak acid that breaks down into orange neutral molecules when it comes into contact with water. Methyl orange shows red color in the acidic medium and yellow color in the basic medium. That's why it is used as a pH indicator in titration due to its clear and distinct color variance properties at different pH. Preparation of methyl orange Methyl orange is prepared from sulphanilic acid N, N-dimethylaniline through a diazonium coupling reaction. The first product from the coupling is the bright red form of methyl orange, called helianthin. In the base, helianthin is converted to the orange sodium salt, called methyl orange. Mechanism of preparation of methyl orange The mechanism of this reaction is given below: Step 1:  Sulphanilic acid reacts with sodium carbonate extract and gets converted into sodium salt of p-amino benzene sulphonate Step 2: It undergoes a diazotization reaction in presence of nitrous acid to form diazonium chloride

Phases of Digital Forensics

Following are the phases of digital forensics: (i) Collection of information/ Pre search consideration Before reaching the scene of the crime, the expert should have preliminary knowledge about the nature of the cybercrime. This information can be obtained from the first responding officer. Pre-search consideration helps the investigator to physically and mentally prepare for the crime and helps him to carry relevant tools to the scene of the crime.  Following are the three steps involved in pre-search consideration: (a) Securing and Evaluating In this stage, the expert asks questions regarding crime and pays special attention to the safety issues. He also checks the consent issues. (b) Conducting preliminary interviews Take the preliminary interview of the owner or user of the computer system found at the scene of the crime. If the system is password protected then an expert may ask the access to the system. Also, try to know the purpose of the use of a computer by the user. (c) Docum

Digital Forensics and it's Branches

What is Digital Forensics? The branch of forensic science that deals with the identification, collection, preservation, analysis, and reporting of any valuable digital evidence found at the scene of the crime is called digital forensics. It is also based on Locard's principle of exchange which states that "when a person comes into contact with an object, a mutual transfer of pieces of evidence takes place".  Here, digital forensic evidence like temporary files, commands, history, deleted data, etc can be found in the computer. Digital forensics helps the court of law in the conviction of criminals by studying digital evidence and maintaining a proper chain of custody. Branches of Digital Forensics Following are the branches of digital forensics: (i) Mobile forensics Mobile forensics is the branch of digital forensics that deals with the identification, collection, preservation, analysis, and reporting of any mobile device like a smartphone, tablet, etc found at the s